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Understanding Bitcoin's Fraud Proofs and the Dangers of SPV Mining

Bitcoin's Fraud Proofs and the Dangers of SPV Mining


Bitcoin, the world's first decentralized digital currency, operates on a set of rules and protocols that ensure its security and integrity. However, as with any system, vulnerabilities can arise. One such issue that garnered attention in the Bitcoin community was the generation of invalid blocks by some miners, leading to concerns about the reliability of transaction confirmations. This article delves into the technicalities of this situation, focusing on the concept of fraud proofs and the dangers of SPV (Simplified Payment Verification) mining.

The Problem: Miners Generating Invalid Blocks

In July 2015, a significant event occurred in the Bitcoin network. Some miners began producing invalid blocks. This was problematic because almost all software, except for Bitcoin Core versions 0.9.5 and later, would accept these invalid blocks under specific conditions. The root cause of this was tied to the enforcement of strict DER signatures and the BIP66 consensus rules.

BIP66 and Strict DER Signatures

For several months leading up to the event, an increasing amount of mining hash rate signaled its intention to enforce strict DER signatures. As per the BIP66 rules, once 950 of the last 1,000 blocks were version 3 (v3) blocks, all upgraded miners would reject version 2 (v2) blocks. However, on the morning of 4 July 2015, a small miner (part of the non-upgraded 5%) mined an invalid block. This was expected. What was unexpected was that about half of the network's hash rate was mining without fully validating blocks, a practice known as SPV mining. These miners built new blocks on top of the invalid block.

The Dangers of SPV Mining

SPV mining is when miners produce blocks without fully validating the transactions within them. This practice can lead to the acceptance of invalid blocks, as was the case in July 2015. Notably, about 50% of the network that was SPV mining had explicitly indicated they would enforce the BIP66 rules. By not doing so, several large miners lost over $50,000 worth of mining income.

The primary risk of SPV mining is that software that assumes blocks are valid (because invalid blocks cost miners money) is at risk of showing transactions as confirmed when they aren't. This particularly affects lightweight (SPV) wallets and older versions of Bitcoin Core downgraded to SPV-level security by the new BIP66 consensus rules.

The Solution and Recommendations

The recommended solution at the time was to get all miners off SPV mining and back to full validation. If achieved, this would have reduced the recommendation of waiting for 30 extra confirmations to a lower number. However, as of the last update in 2015, the situation had not been fully resolved. Users were advised to wait for 30 more confirmations than usual before accepting a transaction to ensure its validity.


The generation of invalid blocks and the dangers of SPV mining highlight the importance of vigilance and adaptability in the Bitcoin network. As the network evolves, so too do its challenges. Understanding these intricacies ensures that users can navigate the Bitcoin ecosystem safely and efficiently.

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